Human-Machine Interface (Human-Machine Interface) is the way in which people interact with machines, that is, the medium through which users and machines communicate information, including the input and output of information. The good man-machine interface is beautiful and easy to understand, simple to operate and has a guiding function, which makes the user feel comfortable and happy, thereby improving the use efficiency. The interface can be divided into a hard interface and a soft interface, and can also be divided into a broad and narrow human-machine interface.
First, the origin of interface design and industrial design
Interface design and industrial design have a lot of consistency in basic ideas and content.
First of all, in terms of basic ideas, the point of industrial design is to integrate spiritual and cultural factors, including the pursuit of beauty, into material products, that is, products created should satisfy people's material and cultural needs. This is in line with the basic theory of interface design, that is, product design should be adapted to human physiological and psychological factors, and the basic concept of industrial design "the products created should meet people's material and cultural needs at the same time", the meaning is basically the same, and the emphasis is slightly different.
Secondly, regarding the difference between industrial design and interface design, there is a saying that interface design is based on the research and processing of information transmission between people and things. Industrial design studies and deals with the various relationships between people and things. Especially for more complex products, industrial design does not delve into the specific details of science and technology. Although the interface design is also a study of "machine", but also "human", research on various aspects of human physiology and psychology. However, the study of "machine" generally refers to the part that has a direct relationship with people. It is not necessary to thoroughly investigate the principle and structure of "machine" and "person", then only study the physiological and psychological aspects related to "machine". a variety of factors. In short, industrial design and interface design are also the study of the relationship between people and things, the study of the interface between people and things.
Second, the information age industrial design calls for interface design
When the mechanical industry developed, how to effectively manipulate and control products or machinery led to ergonomics. After the Second World War, with the simple labor of physical strength turned to the complex labor of the brain, ergonomics was further extended to the design of human thinking ability. "Enable design to support, liberate, and expand human brain work." In the information age, when the material needs are met, people pursue their own personality development and emotional appeals, and the design must focus on the emotional needs of people. The complexity of design factors has made design evaluation criteria difficult. Can individualized design works be recognized by consumers? 7 New product development can be accepted by the market. 7 At present, most of China's enterprises are not strong enough, and the design and development failure is not very strong. How to A systematic and systematic understanding and evaluation of the design to match the market requires an understanding of the design factors. The use of interface analysis method is to make the design factors organized, avoiding the simple misunderstanding that "people" is a "biological person" and "out of design = science + art". For many products with microelectronics, since the execution of functions is no longer a traditionally perceptible way, but the invisible operation of electronics, the appearance of the product cannot explain and express its internal functions and usage status. Therefore, a so-called user interface (UserInterface) is constructed between the user and the product, thereby realizing communication and communication between the human and the machine.
As technology penetrates into our daily lives, the emergence of user interfaces is becoming more and more common. The main forms are: the use of digital products (information products), such as radio, PDA, rnp3 player, computer soft interface and web interface. . With the development of electronic technology, especially the enjoyment and experience brought by humanities and technology applications, electronic digital products will inevitably affect all aspects and aspects of life. There will be more and more questions about the interface, bringing the interface design to the agenda.
Third, the interface-centered product design
Several levels of design
People-oriented design requires design to be based on user needs. According to the different levels of people's needs, we can divide the design into several levels. People's needs are multifaceted. They have a certain level and stage, and they are development and change. Psychologist Abraham Maslow put forward the famous "demand theory" when studying human motives. He believes that the level of human needs is developed from the bottom level to the high level, and is stepped. It can be divided into five basic levels. :
(1) Physiological needs: This is the most basic survival requirement of human beings. It is the primary and necessary.
(2) Security requirements: This is also very easy to understand. After meeting the needs of survival, it is natural to ask for no danger of survival and to protect your life. This is basically a further extension of the survival needs.
(3) Social needs: The most important content is the requirements of attribution and love. Human beings are the highest form of social animals. Anyone who has his own friends, career, love or other in life can find happiness and joy here.
(4) Respect for the need: that is, you must be respected by others.
(5) Self-fulfilling needs are subject to the highest demand, that is, human values â€‹â€‹have achievable opportunities and achievable conditions and can be recognized. Like those who have a lot of material wealth, what they are pursuing may be able to realize their own value and be recognized.
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